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2001: A Special Odyssey 

CUE UP music: Opening Theme from Also Sprach Zarathustra, Op. 
30 by Richard Strauss 

Yes, it really is 200 1 , and on a warm Saturday, April 
2 P', many space travelers arrived in New York for our annual 
Spring gathering. After a Board meeting and a luncheon 
shmoozefest for the general membership, we gathered m 
the Fales Library, mside the Bobst Library of New York 
University (Washington Square). This was the seventh tune' 
we have met in their facilities, with very good reason (see 
Morton Cohen's talk, below). 

After a warm welcome by our President, Stephanie 
Lovett, we were addressed by Catherine Porter and Peter 
Selley of Sotheby's, whose upcoming auction of the effects 
of Alice Liddell Hargreaves and her family should be known 
to all - if not, please see "Of Books" (p. 16) and the enclosed 
flyer. David Schaefer then talked about the Maxine Schaefer 
Memorial Reading (see "Ravings", p. 15). 

Andrew Sellon, known for his one-man show 
Through the Looking-Glass Darkly: A Dream Play About 
Lewis Carroll [KL 50, p. 1], introduced "the man who needs 
no introduction", Morton Cohen. 

Morton's talk "Lewis Carroll in Greenwich Village" 
began with his disclauner of his title as "sheer whimsy", as 
CLD, of course, never set foot here. However, Greenwich 
Village houses one of the world's premier Carroll 
collections just a few yards from where we were sitting, a 
bequest of the Berol family, and Cohen modestly related 
his own part in how that came to be. 

His story began in the mid-1960s when he, along 
with Roger Lancelyn Green, whom he had met while 
researching H.Rider Haggard for his (Cohen's) doctorate, 
was deeply involved in the "onerous task" of collecting 
copies of CLD's letters for publication. Having attempted 
to find as many of the descendants of the recipients as he 
could (writing about five thousand letters himself), Cohen 
also contacted dealers, libraries, and private collectors. 

One such collector was Alfred C. Berol, a 
businessman whose family name appears on the pencils we 
all use. Mr. Berol was a Harvard graduate and sat on boards 
at both Harvard and Columbia. A letter from Warren Weaver 
provided Cohen's entree into Berol's world, and they met 
for an initial lunch. Berol was reluctant to have anything he 
owned published and was suspicious of Cohen (then "a mere 

FOXTROT Bill Amend 

Assistant Professor at City College"). Morton was also 
precipitously rushing towards an agreed-upon deadline with 
Macmillan for the publication of the Letters,"^ and knew of 
the importance of Berol's holdings. 

A subsequent lunch was mostly about Berol's 
desire to purchase the manuscript diaries (for the princely 
sum of $5,000). To make a long story short, Morton 
eventually helped the Keeper of Manuscripts at the British 
Museum, Theodore Skeat (who happened to be a nephew of 
Robinson Duckworth), acquire them for their institution, 
and Cohen was rewarded with the only photocopy. He also 
arranged to have the diaries indexed (202 single-spaced 
pages). Morton naturally 
feared he had alienated 

In midsummer 
1974 just as Cohen was 
supposed to deliver his 
manuscript, he received a 
telegram informing him 
of Berol's death at the age 
of 81. Berol's son Ken- 
neth ("a man of sporting 
interests") was the exec- 
utor, and was to decide the Morton Cohen 
fate of the letters, indeed, the whole collection. Kenneth 
was advised by David Kirschenbaum of the Carnegie 
Bookshop and Gordon Ray, President of the Guggenheim 
Foundation, to donate them to New York University, to which 
he eventually agreed. 

Morton invited us to imagine his own state of mind 
when he walked over from his apartment to see the collection 
for the first time. Among an imimaginable freasure-frove, 
he found two copies of the 1865 Alice, original drawings 
by Tenniel, 75 photographs, amazing unpublished 
manuscripts andy?ve hundred and sixty five letters! Delight 
mingled with dawning horror as he realized the work which 
lay ahead for him - to integrate their texts into his "com- 
pleted" manuscript, to search out the descendants of the 
recipients and so on. Then Cohen, returning to Oxford on a 
Fulbright scholarship, began receiving photocopies of the 
letters from George Winchester Stone, the Dean of the 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at NYU. 

"Miraculously", by which I'm sure he meant copious 







Cover: detail of drawing ©Mary Kline-Misol 
See p. 13 for fijther details. 

amounts of hard work, his manuscript was fmished and 
delivered to Macmillan by September, 1975. 

The Berol Collection is "properly now housed in a 
university with a first-rate English department, one of the 
best libraries in New York and inside the Fales, where all 
qualified applicants are greeted warmly and allowed to work 
with original manuscript material... in friendly and comfort- 
able surroundings." 

"One evening over dirmer at the Century Club, I 
asked Gordon Ray why NYU had been chosen as the 
depository. He smiled and said, 'Dave Kirschenbaum and I 
thought you wouldn't mind having the collection within 
walking distance of where you live.'" Cohen enjoys that 
privilege to this day. 

August Imholtz then announced the Stanley Marx 
Fund Essay contest (see "Ravings", p. 1 6) and the wonderfully 
color-coordinated Cindy Watter 
introduced Roberta Rogow, former 
librarian, sci-fi writer, and author of 
three mystery stories involving Arthur 
Conan Doyle and C.L.Dodgson as 
fellow-sleuths.^ Her fourth. The 
Problem of the Surly Servant 
(Minotaur Books, July '01) is due 

Rogow's talk, "Mr Dodgson 
of Christ Church" did not mention her 
own works, but instead concentrated 
on the research which she had used to 
create the atmosphere in her books - 
mostly about the relationship Dodg- 
son had with H.G. Liddell, "The Dean 
and the Don". Her description of Ox- 
ford in 1851 was as "a bastion of 
'muscular Christianity' in the midst of 
academic doldrums" under the 
chancellorship of the Prince Consort 
Albert, who was quite a reformer. Liddell's reforms included 
an insistence on actual teaching by teachers and attendance 
and the passing of exams by students, somewhat radical 
notions at the time. 

Rogow described the three groups of young men 
at Oxford as "the jocks (rich aristocrats out for a bit of fun), 
the scholars, and the gentlemen-clergy." 

When, in 1855, Henry George Liddell, Prince 
Albert's personal chaplain, and his (fifteen-years younger) 
wife and family moved into the Deanery, CLD was 29. 
Dodgson's entree into Liddell's family came as the 
mathematical tutor of the Dean's son Henry, and he quickly 
became part of the "nursery circle" which included Miss 
Pricketts, their governess, whom Rogow thought to be the 
model for the Red Queen. 

Rogow speculated on the causes of the 1 863 rifl 
between the Dean and the Don, citing Mrs. Liddell's 
aristocratic ambitions - that as her daughters became of 
marriageable age, the idea of having an unconnected 
bachelor with no income and marginal social skills hanging 

about might set the town gossips' tongues to wagging, and 
so she sent Alice up to her grandmother's in Wales and 
burned all CLD's letters to her, attempting to destroy all 
evidence of his existence. (Most fortuitously, Alice took 
the handwritten manuscript oi Alice's Adventures under 
Ground with her to Wales, so it alone survived.) 

Rogow then related the later life of CLD, his 
arguments with the Dean over architecture (mainly the Bell 
Tower), and Dodgson's eventual status as Senior Fellow of 
the Common Room, "a sort of glorified caterer". 

When one goes to Christ Church in Oxford today, 
she concluded, the portrait one sees of Dean Henry George 
Liddell is large, well-lit and well-placed in the entrance; 
Dodgson's is dark and hidden towards the rear. However, 
over the Dean's head is an enormous stained-glass window 
bearing characters from Carroll's immortal creations, so 
"the Dean and the Don are united at 

Our final speaker was 
introduced by Morton Cohen. 
Hugues Lebailly is Senior Lecturer 
in English at the Sorbonne in Paris, 
and a noted Victorian scholar. His 
engaging talk was entitled "Charles 
Lutwidge Dodgson's Infatuation with 
the Weaker and More ^^sthetic Sex 
Re-examined". Lebailly dedicated 
his talk to Karoline Leach, as they 
have "both independently arrived at 
some very similar conclusions about 
the way that the mythic 'Lewis 
Carroll' has profoundly obscured our 
view of Dodgson's real life and 
passions."- kl 

His talk began reminding us 
of the quasi-universal tenet of the 
"extremely limited range" of CLD's 
supposed interests as "short-lived friendships with pre- 
pubescent girls". This purported obsession is seen through 
twentieth- and twentyfu-st- century eyes as suspicious at 

Hugues demonstrated that most of this reading is 
based on misinterpretation, suppression, and out-of-context 
or censored "evidence". Lebailly's recounting of CLD's 
"girl" friends established this - that as unmarried women in 
those days were considered "girls" (there really was no 
acknowledgment of adolescence), both biographers and 
even those women involved tended to underestimate their 
actual ages. Isa Bowman provides a typical example - in 
her biography she narrates a kissing incident "when she was 
only some ten or eleven years of age"; in point of fact she 
must have been fourteen or fifteen at the time. CLD's 
enormous catalog of the visitors to his rooms, his com- 
panions on theatrical expeditions, and even unchaperoned 
guests staying with him at Eastbourne (such as Gertrude 
Chataway, then twenty-seven, who stayed for four days) 
consisted of young ladies in their upper teens or early 

twenties; as he advanced in age they tended to become older 
as well - extending into upper twenties and early thirties. 
Still he was idiosyncratically describing them as "child- 
friends". Lebailly's litany made Dodgson sound the tiniest 
bit like another famous Don - Giovanni, as compiled by 
Leporello in his famous comic aria "Madamina! il catalog©". 

M.Lebailly also copiously documented CLD's 
interest in the female nude - teenaged and upwards - by 
means of a slide show of illustrations, paintings (he said he 
was reluctant to take some of the photographs Dodgson 
enjoyed to a New York film processor! !) and ephemera from 
the "Swimming Entertainments"- featuring half-clad women 
- of which Dodgson was so fond. Excerpts of CLD's 
somewhat manipulative letters (accompanied by the 
documented ages of the girls) was a fascinating eye-opener 
for us, as were Dodgson 's desires to photograph (or be 
shown pictures or sketches of) young women in "acrobatic" 
dress, "bathing" costumes, or less. 

The talk also covered the unforgivable suppression 
of entire volumes of the diaries and sections thereof by 
CLD's nieces, the spinsters Violet and Menella Dodgson 
and by his nephew Stuart Dodgson Collingwood. Let us 
remember that in Victorian times the typical sitting-room 
mantlepiece was decorated with holiday and birthday cards 
depicting naked children as the very souls of mnocence. 
The interest of a Don in young women and actresses was 
scandalous to the Victorians, and it was this that they 
attempted to censor. Isn't it tragically ironic that the 
situation has been so reversed in our time? 

This photo and the one on p.2 are by Andrew Sellon 

Dodgson 's generous nature and concern for others 
dictated that he restrict his friendships with the "weaker" 
sex to children when he was himself of "marriageable" age 
and might possibly diminish the prospects of a young woman 
should he be seen escorting her. As he became older, he 
allowed his relationships with young women to blossom, 
since he then considered himself "beyond suspicion", as 
Lebailly demonstrated with a number of fascinating quot- 
ations from Dodgson's letters. His "constantly reasserted 
thirst for kisses, and his obsessive collecting of partly or 
wholly nude depictions of the female body in its youth and 
early maturity concur to make his constant quest for their 
actual or pictorial intimacy quite physical and sensual, if 
not sexual." 

Lebailly concluded by quoting from a letter CLD 
wrote in 1880 describing young Annie and Frances 
Henderson's iimocent habit of walking naked around the 
house as "very beautiful, (filling the viewer with) a feeling 
of reverence, as at the presence of something sacred", but 
immediately felt compelled to add that "for the sake of their 
little brother" he found it "desirable to bring such habits to 
an end" as "a boy's head soon imbibes precocious ideas, 
which might be a cause of unhappiness in fiiture years..." 
Lebailly wondered if some of this came from the very 
personal experiences of young Charles Dodgson and his 
brood of younger sisters. 

M.Lebailly has generously posted his entire 
superbly-documented talk on the Lewis Carroll eGroup 
website as a downloadable RTF-format attachment: http:// As 
you can imagine, it caused a very interesting "thread". 

Shortly after the closing remarks, Janet Jurist, shod 
in gorgeous Carrollian Stubbs & Wootton slippers (see p.23 
for ordering details) hosted the consummate cocktail party 
at her East Side apartment. It was a warm, crowded, and very 
friendly caucus. On display were John Hadden's remarkable 
wood sculpture [a postcard bearing its picture was 
enclosed in KL 65, but nothing can do it justice outside 
of beholding it in person], works by Beverly Wallace, other 
gems from Janet's collection and a lively, informal sale/ 
trade area, including many Russian editions brought here 
by Nina Demourova, here on a visit from her home in 

Nina gave a brief talk on the incredibly courageous 
Vasily Lobanov, who is 75 and lives in Siberia - where if 
one says one's computer has frozen, it is meant quite literally. 
For years he has been writing about the Russian translations 
of Carroll's works, and has been publishing, under the most 
distressing conditions, a series of fascicles called Lewis 
Carroll in Russia (JIbioHc Kappojui B Pocchh). Xeroxed 
copies of one the fascicles (#24) were distributed as a little 
keepsake after the talk. 

Russian translations'* began as early as 1879, but 
since the 1917 revolution, many translations (such as the 
now-famous Nabokov) were published outside o/Russia, a 
situation which did not turn around until 1990! Nabokov 
was on the list of proscribed authors, so his translation was 

totally unavailable. Now, of course, Carroll is enormously 
popular and, as an example, Nina cited her own translation, 
one of perhaps forty in existence, which alone has sold over 
five million copies. Naturally, she has not been compen- 

The good news is that Lobanov's works have been 
collected into a single volume of the twice-yearly academic 
publication Folia Anglistica (August 2000), published by 
the Department of English Linguistics at Moscow State 

Sotheby's had invited us to a pre-opening recep- 
tion, unfortunately held at exactly the same time as the cock- 
tail party. Some souls chose one over the other; some went 
to both. Alice Hargreaves' granddaughter Mary Jean St. Clair 
was in attendance at Sotheby's and was happy to sign cata- 
logs. The next morning, Sunday, Sotheby's had kindly ar- 
ranged for the Society to have another special viewing, this 
one an hour before it was open to the public. The exhibit 
was small enough to be seen in this amount of time, yet 
quite thrilling. [See "Of Books and Things", p. 1 6, for fur- 
ther details.] 

In all, a splendid weekend. This fall, you won't have 
to be the winning quarterback of the Superbowl to say "I'm 
going to Disneyland!" for that is where our next meeting 
will be, celebrating the 50"' anniversary of the release of 
the fihn. "A very important date" to be sure. 

1. Spring '79, Fall '84, and Springs of 92, '97, '98, '99 and '01 

2. The Letters of Lewis Carroll, Oxford University Press, 1979 

3. The Problem of the Missing Miss (St Martins Press, '98), 

The Problem of the Spiteful Spiritualist (St Martins Press '99), 
The Problem of the Evil Editor (Minotaur Books '00) 

4. Nina Demourova's fine compliation eind analysis of the Russian 
translations appear in her article "Alice Speaks Russian..." pub- 
lished in the //an'ari/Z,/6rar)/5M//e/m( 1994/95, vol. 5, no.4). 


'Really f I never heard of a Cheshire dog. ' 

The Aryan Alice & Other International 

Jeffrey Garrett 

A Note to the Reader: This is an updated and revised 
version of a slide lecture presented at a number of venues 
over the past several years, including Northern Illinois 
University (1996), the University of Toronto (1997), and 
Northwestern University (2000).^ The conversational tone 
of the original oral presentation has been retained. - jg 

This lecture is primarily about the illustrations that 
we find in the translations of Lewis Carroll's Alice novels 
in many countries around the world, but I would like to start 
by considering several aspects of these translations 
themselves. The reason behind this introductory digression 
should become clear as I proceed, but in a nutshell, it is that 
translation and illustration are actually very similar 
activities, and what applies to one very often applies to the 
other, and one such common truth is most clearly identified 
with regard to text translation. 

About five years ago, I found a website intriguingly 
called "The Jabberwocky Variations". As the name suggests, 
this site collected parodies, miscellany, interpretations, but 
above all translations of Lewis Carroll's famous poem from 
Through the Looking-Glass. I traced "Jabberwocky 
Variations" to its creator Keith Lim in Singapore - in terms 
of conventional geography, perhaps a strange place for a 
Lewis Carroll site, but for web surfers just another node on 
the Internet, located, if anywhere, on the upper left-hand 
comer of your mouse pad. Actually, the site doesn't seem 
to have been updated at all since November 1998, but you 
can still visit it, a usefiil piece of cyberspace wreckage - 
like so much else out there that continues to exist long after 
its creator has died or moved on to other things.^ 

"Jabberwocky Variations" has translations of the 
poem into 29 languages, including Finnish, Japanese, 
Esperanto, Yiddish, and even Choctaw. There are also several 
translations into German, and I would like to present to you 
two of them and ask you which you like better. I hear someone 
protest: "But I don't read German!" For our purposes, this 
shouldn't be a problem, I assure you. Not only because we 
are dealing with nonsense verse, where linguistic 
comprehension is pretty limited anyway (or can any of you 
tell me, without reference to Carroll's own exegetical 
remarks\ what mome raths or borogoves are?), but also 
because for the point I wish to make it may almost be 
preferable to understand less of the German translation 
rather than more. 

Here then is the first translation, and it is actually 
one of the very first, composed by Robert Scott, a colleague 
of Alice Liddell's father, Henry George Liddell, at Christ 
Church, Oxford."* It is entitled "Der Jammerwoch" and it 
goes like this: 

Es brillig war. Die schlichten Toven 

Wirrten und wimmelten in Waben; 
Und aller-mtimsige Burggoven 

Die mohmen Rath ausgraben. 

„Bewahre doch vor Jammerwoch! 

Die Zahne knirschen, Krallen kratzen! 
Bewahr ' vor Jubjub- Vogel, vor 

Frumiosen Banderschndtzchen! " 

The second translation - also available from 
Singapore, at least the last time I checked - is the work of 
Christian Enzensberger, the lesser-known brother of the 
famous German essayist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, and it 
dates from 1963.' I think you will notice the differences 
right away. The title is "Der Zipferlake": 

Verdaustig war 's, und glafie Wieben 

rotterten gorkicht im Gemank. 
Gar elump war der Pluckerwank, 

und die gabben Schweisel frieben. 

,.Hab acht vorm Zipferlak, mein Kind! 

Sein Maul ist beifi, sein Griff ist bohr 
Vorm Fliegelflagel sieh dich vor, 

dem mampfen Schnatterrind. " 

Now, do you prefer Scott's or Enzensberger 's 
translation? I should tell you that the redoubtable Martin 
Gardner (in Annotated Alice) describes Scott's translation 
as "magnificent." This may be true in some sense, but I 
wonder if Gardner ever stopped to consider - or whether it 
was important to him - how Scott's translation might work 
for readers or listeners of German, for example, German 
children. What strikes me most about the Scott translation 
is that it is actually more of a transcription of Carroll's poem 
with a little bit of German syntax and morphology thrown 
in - and of course, at best, some mock German 
pronunciation. In Enzensberger 's translation, by contrast, 
you will not recognize a single syllable from the Carrollian 
original. And why should you? Across the spectrum of 
translations, I would argue that those that succeed do so not 
by slavishly imitating the original, but by instead somehow 
capturing a spirit, something ineffable, and recreating that 
something, that spirit, in words and sounds appropriate to 
their own language. Incidentally, Enzensberger 's translation 
of "Jabberwocky" and of Alice as a whole is regarded in 
Germany as perhaps the finest literary translation of 
Carroll's work there is.* 

I want to take this principle of translation - that 
the best translations are often those that depart the most 
radically from the outward trappings of the original to 
capture the essence of the work itself- and commend it to 
you as we begin to look at the successfiil and less successfiil 
translations of Alice mio pictures in various cultures of the 
world. My thesis will be that the most interesting and even 
most authentic pictorial interpretations of Alice - analogous 
to the best text translations - just may be those that 
emancipate themselves most courageously from the 
iconographic conventions of the original. It is possible that 
the image translations which are seemingly the most 
irreverent in fact show the deepest grasp of, and the greatest 
affection for Lewis Carroll's masterpiece, and succeed best 
in translating something very English into something, say, 
very Swedish, very Brazilian, or very Russian, to which 

children in these cultures can relate. Isn't that what 
translation is all about? As for treating text and image as 
somehow both amenable to being "read", there is a large 
body of literature on this topic (starting with Umberto Eco's 
writings of the 1970s'), but, with some caveats, it is 
supported by current theory.* 

There is also a trendy post-colonial twist to much 
of this, for many efforts to convey Alice to other cultures, 
both in word and in image, have not really been created with 
the uniqueness of children of these other cultures in mind. 
Indeed, Alice is a classic example of cultural exchange 
conceived of as a one-way sfreet. The fact that the Oxford 
Companion to Children 's Literature compares the number 
of Alice translations with those of the Bible should alert us 
to the possibility that both books may have benefited from 
the same missionary zeal of English colonial officials and 
imperial apologists.^ In fact, the goal may have been much 
the same in both cases: to bring the fruits of English culture 
to the barbarians of the world, or, put in less benevolent 

terms, to rub the noses of 
local elites in their own 
cultural backwardness. How 
else can we explain the 1 940 
translation of the first 
chapter of Alice into 
Swahili, with illustrations 
that give Alice a dark skin, 
but in no other way seek to 
mediate between European 
and African culture?'" Or the 
many schoolbook editions 
of Alice in the late forties, 
for example those in India 
and Hong Kong? The 
translation of Alice into the Pitjantjatjara language of the 
Australian aborigines, in 1975, must also be seen in this 
context." This "aboriginal" Alice is somewhat of an artifice 
in any case, since it turns out to have been commissioned 
by the Department of Adult Education at the University of 
Adelaide, and its sfrikingly authentic-looking "aboriginal" 
illustrations were the work of Byron Sewell, a talented 
American artist and Carroll bibliographer. It was not created 
in anticipation of any demand from aboriginal children or 
their parents, but was instead an instrument, one might say 
(at the risk of being unjust to its creators), of cultural 
hegemonism.'^ Much the same story characterizes many 
other translations of Alice, rendered lovingly into exotic 
languages by English missionaries or cmglicized colonials 
and usually retaining the Tenniel illustrations. It would be 
absurd to use the existence of these editions as evidence 
that Alice in Wonderland is a children's favorite in these 

We need to say a word about the famous 
illustrations of John Tenniel, the gifted Punch cartoonist 
whose pictures have become as canonized as Carroll's text. 
As late as October 19, 1955, an editorial in the English 
magazine Junior Bookshelf ^d& entitled, "Yes, It Must Be 

Swahili Alice 

Tenniel." It was a review of Mervyn Peake's then new 
illustrations,'^ but this article went beyond damning just 
them and proceeded to disqualify all other efforts of the 
preceding 90 years - and also all those yet to come. This 
attitude is typical of a repressive cultural dogmatism, ruling 
out experimentation and flexibility in the face of the needs 
of other cultures and, indeed, one's own. And so we fmd 
Tenniel's blonde-haired Alice all over the world - often 
helped along by Disney - as a very superficial guarantor of 
the authenticity of the translation. A more subtle form of 
orthodoxy is, of course, often overlooked. It is the tradition 
of illustrating those very scenes that Tenniel the Master did 
first: the fall down the rabbit hole, for example, or the scene 
in the Duchess's kitchen. It is often proof that an original 
mind is at work when we discover illustrations that pick out 
completely new moments of the story to paraphrase visually. 
Nonetheless, despite the complaints of the purists 
and grail keepers, Alice has attracted many great artists and 
fine presses over the years who have created their own 
visions for the work, and collectors are always delighted to 
find the unexpected or unknown edition. Just to mention 
two such projects from North America, several years ago I 
was shown a very rare contemporary portfolio at the Osborne 
Collection in Toronto, with hand-colored woodblock prints 
by the Canadian artist George Walker.'"- '^ Only 177 copies 
were printed. The American artist Barry Moser created 
original wood engravings, and his Alice became the winner 
of an American Book Award. Moser's original "Pennyroyal 
Alice" is rare and unaffordable, but the University of 
California Press produced a handsome hardbound edition 
for a mere $70,'^ and Harcourt also published an inexpensive 
paperback edition for only $17 in 1982. 

However, the American contribution to the Alice 
tradition is actually not in the creation of livres d 'artiste, 
but more within the reahn of popularizing it." The principal 
North American whose pictorial rendition of Alice has made 
its mark internationally is none other than Walter Elias 
Disney, bom 1901 m Chicago. Disney was obsessed equally 
with the Alice of Lewis Carroll and that of John Tenniel, 
and labored eighteen years, from 1933 until the early 50s, 
to create his own cartoon version. In response to a fan letter 
from New Jersey, he once wrote that 

Almost everyone who has read the book with 
enthusiasm cannot help but visualize Alice as she 
was drawn by Tenniel, the illustrator of the book, 
and regardless how close we come to this image, 
the result will always be a disappointment.^^ 

All of us know the Disney Alice, but are we aware 
of its international impact? Even if we overlook the huge 
number of licensed Disney Alices, we must deal with an 
extraordinary number of closely derivative versions. There 
are several giveaways, especially Alice's blonde hair, but 
also the White Rabbit, which in most of the world is 
Disney's, not Tenniel's. This is the case with an Israeli 
edition of 1973, for example, which actually began its life 
as an Italian edition in 1957, documenting the way 
illustrative traditions proliferate around the world.'' 

But what of the genuinely original international 
interpretations of Alice"? I want to present some evidence 
to allow us to see to what extent Alice has in fact become at 
home in different parts of the world, and, if so, in what way, 
through what processes of alteration and image translation; 
and in what way Alice remains somehow foreign to its new 
host cultures and to the children living there. Here, too, there 
are caveats, since what often may appear to be originality 
or creative license may just be the result of mistaken 
understanding at the most literal level. In some Italian 
versions, for example, you will notice that Alice's big sister 
is sitting on a bench instead of on the bank by the river.^° 
The original reads, "Alice was 
beginning to get very tired of sitting 
by her sister on the bank . . ." "Bank" 
is frequently mistranslated as 
banchina, which in Italian means 
"bench." The situation is even 
worse, by the way, in German, where 
the word for bench is Bank, as in 
Sitzbank. A good half of German 
F.Haacken Alice translations have Alice and her 

sister sittmg on a bench.^' All of these mistakes, incidentally, 
go back to a 1912 translation of Alice by Helene Scheu- 
Riesz.22 ^' 

One of the truly great Alice interpretations is from 
the early 1970s, by the French 
artist Nicole Claveloux.^" She 
works with the collage 
effects and pop-art tricks 
characteristic of the period. 
It is an indication of her 
originality that many of the 
scenes she has chosen to 
illustrate are new to the 
Carroll tradition entirely, 
such as a picture of the poor 
mouse cowering as Alice describes what an efficient mouser 
her cat Dmah is. 

In Eastern Europe, Alice is enormously popular and 

the object of great veneration, 

but in a way quite different 

from the West. Based on the 

evidence of the illusfrations, 

it seems less the 

characteristic humor (such as 

the wordplay and puns) which 

appeals and more the 

philosophical anarchy, the 

logical and mathematical 

games, and the 

phantasmagoric and even 

nightmarish quality of many 

Kalinovski of the scenes which attract 

Slavic translators, illustrators, and, one would assume, young 

readers. In the interpretation of the Russian artist Gennadi 

Kalinovski, for example. Wonderland reaches a kind of 


Siemaszko '55 

nightmarish crescendo in the rendering of the Mad Tea Party, 
a mixture of Bosch, Brueghel the Younger, and the Milanese 
artist Arcimboldo." No question here: Tenniel did not even 
make it through the front door. Kalinovski's mfluence is so 
great that his Alice - in this case the little girl he creates as 
the heroine - has developed an mtertextual (or intervisual) 
life of her own in Alices found in works by other Russian 
artists, e.g. Julia Gukova, whose Alice is Kalinovski's, not 
Tenniel's or Disney's.^* 

Of course, any book which has as much to do with 
chess as Through the Looking-Glass simply has to be a hit 
in Eastern Europe, and a number of illustrators there have 
emphasized this aspect of the work in their illustrations, 
among them Maj Mituric." 

It is well-known that Vladimir Nabokov translated 
Alice into Russian while living in Berlin, publishing it under 
the alias "V. Sirin" in 1923.^« The illustrator of Nabokov's 
Alice was Zalshupin. 

Despite its popularity in 
Russia, the Russians are not the 
only Slavs to embrace Alice and then 
to interpret it completely originally. 
There is, for example, the work of a 
remarkable Polish illustrator, Olga 
Siemaszko, who illustrated Alice in 
Wonderland twice, twenty years 
apart. The artist's approach evolved 
from a very scratchy pen-and-ink style in 1955,^' probably 
dictated by the limitations of the Polish printing industry at 
the time, to a rounded, more colorfiil, pop-art influenced 
look in 1977.^° The Slovak artist Dusan K^llay is another 
much-celebrated Alice interpreter who, like Kalinovski, 
seems attracted to the chaos of the story, adding Bosch- 
and Griinewald-like figures to his images. 

With very few exceptions, I have not been very 
successftil finding truly original illustration projects from 
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. But isn't this evidence for 
the point that I was making earlier on? That Alice has simply 
not taken root outside of Europe and North America? Or, 
perhaps, that Alice is honored for its Englishness rather than 
for a universality that is then translated and made intelligible 
within an indigenous context. Thus in Japan, Kaiseisha has 
reprinted the Hajime Seriu translation of Alice, with the 
Tenniel illustrations, well over 20 times since 1979. One 
original-looking Japanese Alice edition published in 1948 
turns out to have 
used Harry Roun- 
tree's illustrations 
that first appeared in 
Glasgow in 1908. 
The most recent 
Japanese edition in 
my possession, 
translated and illus- 
trated by Kuniyoshi 
Kaneko, is indeed 
quite original ^^^^^ 

(though the illusfrations were known as early as 1974)'', 
but exaggerates Alice's Caucasian features and the European- 
ness of the setting, as if to emphasize the work's distant 
origins and strangeness. 

A truly exciting exception to the general rule, that 
most of the world outside Europe and North American has 
not recreated Alice in its own image, comes from Brazil, in 
a rendering of Alice published in 1 970 with artwork by Darcy 
Penteado." His collages are great art, brimming with energy 
and vitality, but I'm afraid unique in Latin America, where 
children's literature is flourishing today - but, it would 
appear, sans Alice. If I may depart, however, from 
translations of Alice into images and close with an example 
of empathetic literary assimilation, let me mention an 
interpretation of Alice which is as appropriate an adaptation 
of the English original into a Latin American (in this case: 
an Argentine) context as The Wizard of Oz was into an 
American one. I am referring to Dailan Kifki, the great 
nonsense novel of the 1960s by the fabulous Argentine 
writer, Maria Elena Walsh, in which Argentine society takes 
the place of Wonderland, the eponymous elephant must be 
rescued from his perch in a tree by the fire department, and 
Argentina's tinpot military inherits the role of the playing 
card soldiers." This book represented a radical departure 
from the pedantic and moralizing tradition that had 
dominated children's literature in Argentina until the very 
moment her work was published - an analogous situation to 
that in England on the eve of Lewis Carroll's Alice. 

What, if anything, has this romp through the world 
of Alice interpretations shown or proven? As I said at the 
outset, I have wanted to show that franslation - and here I 
consider illustration to be just another vehicle to move ideas 
and concepts from one mind to the next, from one culture 
to the next - can often serve its end best when it takes its 
object and adapts it to the cultural and aesthetic world of 
the target audience. I do not wish to deny that precisely the 
opposite argument could be made as well: that translation 
(or illusfration) does its job best when it serves as a neutral 
vessel to carry over the cultural strangeness of the original 
into the target language. I think that in the end the approach 
we take will depend on our particular agenda with a given 
work, which may change with our mood, audience, or 
didactic goal (if any). Surely the world of translation and 
illustration should be capacious enough to accommodate 
many different approaches. 

I won't disguise from you my own preference, at 
least with regard to this work. It is not, at least for me, to 
make comprehensible to today's children or to children in 
other parts of the world the very different culture represented 
by Victorian England. What makes Alice so astonishingly 
valuable, and the quality which I most prefer to see conveyed 
in both text and image translation is a universal and 
revolutionary frame of mind that it represents, one that 
embodies respect for play and nonsense, of courage in the 
face of the absurdities of the adult world, and of belief in 
the dignity of childhood as a period of grace in all of our 
lives. Seen in that light, honoring the Englishness of Alice 


can only be a secondary goal. The far greater one is capturing 
and communicating Alice's universality across all linguistic 
and cultural boundaries. 

Jeffrey Garrett 

Bibliographer, Western Langs. & Lits. 

Northwestern University Library 

Evanston, IL 

1. The Toronto version of my talk has been published online in the 
cybermagazine TTie Looking Glass at 
/rabbit/1. 1/academy.html. About The Looking Glass, see Knight Letter 63 

2. The URL of the "Jabberwocky Variations" site is currently http:// 

3. These were originally published with the original appearance of the first 
stanza of "Jabberwocky" in Mischmasch in 1855, cf Martin Gardner's 
Annotated Alice (following note), p. 148-49. 

4. Lewis Carroll, Martin Gardner (introduction and notes), and John Tenniel 
(illus.), The Annotated Alice: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland & Through 
the Looking-Glass, Definitive ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2000). 

5. Lewis Carroll, Alice im Wunderland. Alice hinter den Spiegeln. Zwei 
Romane, transl. Christian Enzensberger. (Frankfiirt a.M.: Insel, 1963). 

6. Emer O'SuUivan, Kinderliterarische Komparatistik, Probleme der 
Dichtung, 28. (Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 2000). 

7. Umberto Eco, A Theory of Semiotics, Advances in Semiotics. (Bloomington: 
hidiana University Press, 1976). 

8. For a discussion of the issues, see U. Eco, 1976, chapter 3.5, "Critique of 
Iconism,"p. 191-217. 

9. Humphrey Carpenter and Mari Prichard, The Oxford Companion to 
Children s Literature. (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1984). 

10. Warren Weaver, Alice in Many Tongues: The Translations of Alice in 
Wonderland. (Madison, Wise: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964). Elisi 
Katika Nchi YaAjabu, (London: The Sheldon Press, 1940), transl. E.V. St. Lo 
Conan-Davies, nee St. Lo de Malet 

1 1 . Lewis Carroll, Alitjinya ngura Tjukurtjarankgka, transl. Nancy Sheppard. 
(Adelaide: University of Adelaide, Department of Adult Education, 1981). 

12. Jeffrey Garrett, "The Many Republics of Childhood," in The Best 
Children 's Books in the World: A Treasury of Illustrated Stories, ed. Byron 
Preiss (New York: Harry Abrams, 1 996), 7-9. 

13. Lewis Carroll,Malcolm Muggeridge, and Mervyn Laurence Peake (illus.), 
Alice s Adventures in Wonderland; and, Through the Looking Glass. 
(London: A. Wingate, 1954). 

14. Lewis Carroll, Joseph A. Brabant (introduction), and George A. Walker 
(illus.), Alice 's Adventures in Wonderland. (Toronto: Cheshire Cat Press, 
1988). ' 

15. Lewis Carroll, Andy Malcolm (introduction), and George A. Walker (illus.). 
Through the Looking-Glass: And What Alice Found There. (Toronto: 
Cheshire Cat Press, 1998). 

16. Lewis Carroll, James R. Kincaid (preface and notes), Selwyn H. Goodacre 
(ed), and Barry Moser (illus. and afterword), Alice 's Adventures in 
Wonderland. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). 

1 7. It has frequently been pointed out, for example, that The Wizard ofOz is 
in fact nothing other than Alice in Wonderland \x?ins\dX.QA into an American 
setting - and that the Kansas tornado carrying Dorothy off to Oz is nothing 
other than a rabbit hole that goes up instead of down. 

1 8. Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original. (New York: Simon & 
Schuster, 1976). 

19. Lewis Carroll, BelaBar'am (ed), and Maraja (illus.), y4/wa6e 'eretzha- 
plaot, transl. Aharon Amir. (Tel Aviv: Massada, 1973). 

20. RenzoRossotti andGraziaNidasio (\\\us), Alice nel2000. (Milan: AMZ, 

21. Lewis Carroll and Frans Haacken (illus), Alice im Wunderland, transl. 
Lieselotte Remand (prose) and Martin Reman6 (poetry), 7th ed. (Berlin: Edition 
Holz im Kinderbuchverlag, 1990). 

22. Barbara Teutsch, "Carroll zu wftrtlich genommen," in Aljonka, Arisu, 
Aliki . . . Lewis Carrolls Alice in alter Welt, ed, JeSrey Garrett (Munich: 
British Council; International Youth Library, 1987), 9-12. 

23. Also see O'SuUivan, 2000, op. cit., p. 316-17. All of this suggests, of 
course, that translators are distracted by the work of competing translators 
instead of focusing on the original work! 

24. Lewis Carroll and Nicole Claveloux (illus), LesAventuresd 'Alice aupays 
des merveilles, transl. Henri Parisot. (Paris: Grasset Jeunesse, 1974). 

25. Lewis Carroll and Gennadi Kalinovski (illus), PrikljucenijaAlisyvstrane 
cudes, transl. Boris Zachoder. (Moscow: Detskaja literatura, 1977). 

26. Lewis Carroll and Julia Gukova (illus.), Alice im Wunderland, transl. Sybil 
Grafin SchOnfeldt. (Esslingen: Esslinger im OBV/J. F. Schreiber, 1991). 

27. Lewis Carroll and Maj Mituric (illus.), PrikljucenijaAlisyvstrane cudes; 
Zazerkal'e pro to, cto uvidela tarn Alisa, transl. A. Scerbakov. (Moscow: 
Chudozestvennaja literatura, 1977). 

28. Lewis Carroll and S. Zalsupin (illus), Anjavstrane cudes, transl. V. Sirin 
(Vladimir Nabokov). (Berlin: Izdatel'stvoGamajun, 1923). 

29. Lewis Carroll and Olga Siemaszko (illus), Alicja w Krainie Czarow, transl. 
Antoni Marianowicz. (Warsaw: NaszaKsiegamia, 1957). 

30. Lewis Carroll and Olga Siemaszko (illus.), Alicja w Krainie Czarow, transl. 
Antoni Marianowicz. (Warsaw: Nasza Ksiegamia, 1977). 

31. Lewis Carroll and Kuniyoshi Kaneko (illus.), Alice nel paese delle 
meraviglie, transl. Tommaso Giglio. (Milan: Olivetti, 1974). 

32. Lewis Carroll and Darcy Penteado (illus.), Alice no Pais das Maravilhas, 
transl. Regina Stella Moreira Gomes. (S2o Paulo: CompanhiaEditoraNacional, 

33. Maria Elena Walsh, Da//a«A://it7. (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 


[A note on Alitji in the Dreamtime: Byron Sewell produced his 
illustrations at a time when he was living in Australia and had 
developed a deep interest in Aboriginal bark painting: its spiri- 
tual content, symbolism, and techniques. His original concept 
was for the first truly Australian Alice, in English, with stylized 
illustrations. The later decision to incorporate Pitjantatjara text 
was of two-fold motivation: to present this "universal" story to 
the Aboriginal children while also acquainting other children- 
and adults-with some knowledge of the Aboriginal culture.- ed] 

" 'Twos brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre andgimble in the wabe; All^ 
mimsy were the borogoves. And the mome raths outgrabe fifty basis points." 

Plausibility vs. Probability in Carrollian Research 

John Docherty 

I have just seen Karoline Leach's piece in Knight 
Letter 65 for Winter 2000: a commentary upon aspects of 
the Lilith chapter in the first edition of my book The Literary 
Products of the Lewis Carroll - George MacDonald 
Friendship (1995). There is no pomt in my responding to 
it as such, because my preface to the second (1997) edition 
of this book begins: 

In 1 995 the MacDonald Society held conferences on Lilith 
in Cologne and on Adela Cathcart in Massachusetts. The 
former yielded new insights which have necessitated a 
complete re-writing of the chapter on Lilith. 

A brief survey of the techniques Leach employs in 
her article may, however, help your readers better to evaluate 
these techniques where they are employed in In the Shadow 
of the Dream Child. 

Leach's first eight paragraphs well illustrate her 
carefully indiscriminate use of plausibility. This is 
particularly so of the sentence: 

Several of MacDonald 's stories from the 1860's seem to 
echo Dodgson's serious poetry from the same time: the dream- 
worlds and alternative realities of Phantasies and The 
Portent recall Dodgson's 'Stolen Waters' and 'Faces in the 
Fire' as well as the Alice and Sylvie and Bruno books. 

A valid meaning can be derived from all this. But 
the wild leaps backward and forward in time, associated with 
the imprecision m the use of 'echo' and 'recall' draw readers 
away from the clear light of probability and prepare them 
for her dream-world of plausibility.' 

Many of the images Leach chooses in her 
introductory section - a femme fatale, an imperfect he2irt, 
faces in the fire - are ones which the Victorians picked up 
from sources like the Romantic poets and employed 
lavishly. MacDonald and Carroll are just as likely to have 
derived them from such sources as from each other. Her 
setting the scene in this way lays the necessary non- 
foundation for the rest of her article.^ 

From several unequivocal comments it is clear 
Leach bases her article on the thesis that I propose "that 
MacDonald may have modelled Vane (the 'hero' of Lilith) 
at least in part on his Oxford friend Charles Dodgson". The 
way Leach uses "in part" here is wholly characteristic of 
her approach. Of the forty-five pages I devote to Lilith in 
the first edition of my Carroll-MacDonald book, less than 
half a page in total is concerned with possible connections 
between Vane and Carroll,^ by comparison with some twenty 
pages on the way MacDonald uses the episodes of Looking- 
Glass as the framework for Lilith. 

Quite a lot of material in Lilith, however, is 
a«?obiographical. One of the most striking autobiographical 
passages is where Vane describes his fascination with 
analogies between "physical hypotheses and suggestions 
glimmering out of the metaphysical dreams into which I 
was in the habit of fallmg." This perfectly fits the young 
MacDonald,'' yet Leach sees it as "what would be a very good 
description of an aspect of Charles Dodgson's state of 

Leach soon launches into her familiar claim that 
"there is no actual prima facie evidence anywhere to show 
that Dodgson ever nurtured. . .a passion for (Alice Liddell)". 
This is a manifestation of the extremist fringe of the post- 
modernist insistence upon the superiority of any external 
evidence over the evidence provided by books themselves. 
It is the sort of attitude which reftises to accept that Cathy 
had any feelings for Heathcliff imless such feelings can be 
inferred from an outside source such as some recorded 
anecdote about the inhabitants of Hawarth parsonage. Having 
thus established, to her own satisfaction but counter to the 
basic law of probability, the invalidity of any inferences from 
the text of Carroll's (or MacDonald's) books other than her 
own. Leach seems to feel free to affirm the validity of her 
strange inferences from my text. 

The first technique Leach uses for this is the seven- 
league-booted 'logical' leap: 

Docherty. . .argues that Lonathe child- woman is Alice: 'She 
(Lona/Lilia) was to him (MacDonald) almost as much a living 
example of ideal asexual femininity as Alice Liddell had been 
to Dodgson.' 

Leach herself clearly sees nothing wrong in the 
leap between these sentences. But her automatic assumption 
that other people 'reason' in similar fashion is a particularly 
clear illustration of the level at which she carries out her 

She continues with a similar, but more complex, 
leap, suggesting I do not really succeed because "this 
perforce narrow and immature emotional range cannot 
encompass the peaks and troughs of Vane's wholly adult 
experience. Lilith is not to be decanted into Alice." These 
three statements, linked by "cannot encompass," are 
incontrovertible and vividly expressed. Therein lies part of 
her skill. But there is no rational connection between them. 
Their juxtaposition is apparently intended to set up conftised 
subconscious associations in readers' minds which will 
oblige them to rely on her for creation of the necessary 

Many critics attempt to fit everything into their 
chosen framework. But Leach's approach goes far beyond 
what is normal. For example, by using the words "in this 
context Docherty quotes", she hopes readers will assume 
that the "context" alluded to is mine and not hers. Any 
careless out-of-context comment is grist to her mill. She 
takes a weak aside on the name of Lilith's city,^ both 
misrepresents it and pretends that it is not an aside but 
crucial to my argument, and then multiplies up by implying 
that such passages are frequent throughout my book. 

After this. Leach's article spirals out into reahns 
too diffuse and insubstantial to be caught in any net of logical 
iinalysis. But eventually she returns to a restatement of her 
initial assertions: 

He has recognised the fascinating possibility that Lilith may 
be on one level a kind of biographical essay on Dodgson's 
spiritual experience. Yet the gap between the tormented 
'Vane' of MacDonald's novel and the image of quiet Mr 
Dodgson has proved a major problem for him and he has 
undermined some of his best work in an attempt to 


'interpret' Lilith as an allegory on the mythic relationship 
between Dodgson and Alice Liddell. He is so constrained 
by this that he is even forced to omit large chunks of Lilith's 
most obvious symbolism - for example the sexual 
temptation promised by the title character- as being simply 
too inconsistent with the Dodgson-Alice story. 

The last sentence here is particularly interesting. 
Apparently fearing, with justification, that readers may not 
find in my book all that she does, she implies that because I 
do not attempt to link some major aspects of Lilith with 
Carroll this itself is proof that I do make all the other links 
which she mentions. I must state categorically that the idea 
that ''Lilith may be on one level a kind of biographical essay 
on Dodgson's spiritual experience" had never occurred to 
me until I read her article. This practice of setting up 'paper- 
tigers', in the apparent belief that knocking them down will 
fortify her own theories, has no place in serious literary 

Carroll is not in a position to be able to refute 
Leach's similar assertions about him in her book. Like many 
contemporary biographers, she seems to believe that the 
only way of making her subject comprehensible to her 
readers is by building around him a sexual fantasy in the 
modem mode. Most Carroll scholars continue to assert the 
nonsense nature of his fiction, so they are limited in the 
extent to which they are able to refute her claims. But they 
can refute her implied denial of his skills in logic and her 
scurrilous implication that if a Christian man is seriously 
concerned about his spiritual condition this can only be 
because of what he perceives as sexual lapses. And, 
fortunately, such refiitations are more than adequate. 

John Docherty's book (ISBN 0-7734-9038-8, he, 440 pp) 
may be ordered through a bookstore, online, or from The 
Edwin Mellin Press: Box 450, Lewiston, NY 14092; or Box 
67, Queenston, ON, Canada LOS ILO; or Lampeter Dyfed, 
Wales, U.K. SA48 7DY). The cost is roughly $100 (£78). 

' Even the most sophisticated research is valueless if it takes no 
account of probability. Some effects of not taking probability into 
account are well illustrated by Jean-Jacques Lecercle in the 
introductory section to his Philosophy of Nonsense (London: 
Routledge, 1994), where he depicts the consequences of applying 
traditional rabbinical techniques of analysis to Carroll's fiction. As 
many literary critics seem unaware of the basis of probability law I 
explain this briefly in relation to Carroll's parodying of MacDonald on 
page 107 of my book and its associated endnote 7. 

^ Leach does allude, without acknowledgement, to a number of 
plausible correlations suggested by other critics. But the admixture 
of these with her own 'correlations' serves to increase, not diminish, 
the mood of calculated vagueness. 

•* These brief comments allude to Carroll's depiction of his friendship 
with the MacDonalds in Sylvie and Bruno. This depiction is the 
main subject of chapter 7 of my book. I note at the beginning of the 
preface to the second edition that: "Insights derived from the 
Massachusetts conference... necessitated considerable changes to 
the chapter on the Sylvie and Bruno books, which draw heavily 
upon Adela Cathcart." 

" See Hal Broome's paper on "The Scientific Basis of MacDonald's 
Dream-Frame" in The Golden Thread (ed. William Raeper. 
Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1990), 87-108. 

' This passage was one of the first things removed during the 
compilation of my rewrite. It is irrelevant in its context, but does refer 
to just the sort of place-name symbolism which David Robb 
recognises in his "Symbolism and Allegory" chapter of George 
MacDonald, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1987. Robb's 
chapter remains the most thorough study of MacDonald's symbolism 
and allegory yet published. 


Alice After 

Jacquelyn Pope 

I should be glad for the roof, 
shuddering with rain, 
for the wool pulled warm 
over my eyes. I should be 
glad for the old wall 
that keeps me inside - 
but I want to be sweet-talked 
into something else, 
want to be surprised. 
I'm careful, keep the curtains 
drawn, all afternoon, 
the lights switched off. Now 
if his mother looked, she could 
see me through a crack, 
fingers working to 
win my body back. I've grown 
knock-kneed, I guess, tongue- 
tied, a giantess 
expanding into the eaves, 
breaking chimney pots 
and roof tiles as I 
move into the weather's glaze. 
Now I've done with charms, 
except for sleep. I 
stretch out far as I'm allowed, 
assume my indoor 
life, my old disguise: 
reliable, contracted. 

Jacqueline Pope's work has been published in poetry. Harvard 
Review, Shenandoah, and other journals. "Alice After" first 
appeared in poetry, January 2001, copyright ©2001 by the 
Modem Poetry Association, and is reprinted with the permission 
of the editor and Ms. Pope. 


Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

It was good of President Emeritus Sandor Burstein to 
examine my article, "Goldfish, Death, and the Maiden." [KL 
64, p. 2] I hope he does not believe I am a psychologist, as 
he hinted? My specialty is English Renaissance literature. 

I am very new to Carroll studies, as any reader will have 
noticed - too new to understand how I alarmed him so 
seriously. 1 thought I made clear that my "goldfish bowl 
theory" was largely interest in plot and imagery - speculation 
on Alice's motivation and some of Carroll's recurring images 
and elements. I have found similar ideas fi-om many critics. 
In short, I was looking mostly at Carroll's art. Any cat - 
even a kitten - can look at that kmg, surely. 

I would welcome suggestions on a current, reliable, 
armotated bibliography of Carroll criticism. This field can 
be a maze for a newcomer. 

Chloe Nichols 

In Imaginary Numbers editec 

William Frucht, there appears, on 

page 267, a short article entitled 

"Enantiomorphosis (A Natural 

History of Mirrors)" by Christian 

Bok. Section 4 of the article is 

about "Rev. Charles Lutwidge 

Dodgson (1832-1898), the 

British mathematician," as he puts 

it. It tells of Dodgson's 

experiment with hallucinogenic 

drugs, a crystallized opiate. While 

under the influence of the drug, 

he knocks over a mirror, which 

shatters. The fragments float 

upward and orbit his head. He 

attempts to walk through the halo 

and is immediately cut to shreds. 

He later awoke, unharmed, and 

recorded the experience in his 


The article quotes fi^om Bok's Crystallography: Book I of 

Information Theory (Coach House Press, 1994). 

Interestingly, William Frucht mentions m his Preface that 

AfV was his inspiration throughout his life. Also, in his 

acknowledgments, he mentions that he tried to get Martm 

Gardner to edit the book for him, but was refused. Finally, 

after being pestered, he told Frucht to do itjiimself 

Lester Dickey 
Gardiner ME 

[Imaginary Numbers : An Anthology of Marvelous 
Mathematical Stories, Diversions, Poems, and Musings, 
John Wiley & Sons - he (1999): 0471332445, $28; 
pb(2000) 047 13934 IX, $17] 

In the Food section (yes, the Food section) of the Los 
Angeles Times today {24 Jan '01\ there is an article about 
dormice as a food item. It contains a bit of folklore that 
Lewis Carroll may have known from his Classical studies, 
which in turn may have suggested the scene where the Mad 
Hatter and the March Hare stuff the Dormouse into the 
teapot. I'll quote in full from the article by Charles Perry: 
"Since dormice hibernate, they eat voraciously in the fall to 
fatten themselves up. The Romans took advantage of this by 
fattening dormice in special dormouse jugs called glilaria, 
which had a cozy, rounded, nest-like shape and plenty of 
ventilation holes. And why did they fatten them? For dinner." 
The article also offered a 2nd century Roman recipe for 
roasting glis, as they called the dormouse, but I'll spare you 
the details! 

Warmest regards, 

Margaret Quiett 

I wanted to let you know of the 
NY premiere of "Pictures of Me, 
Actually: an evening with Lewis 
Carroll" which I wrote and am 
performing. It's happening at the 
Producer's Club Theatre II 
between May 10th and 20th. It's 
running in repertory with my 
other one-man show "The 
Museum of Cures". 

In the late 80s the play premiered 
in Los Angeles. The LA Times 
called it "a beguiling adventure". 
Variety. "Eccentric, private, 
funny, a storyteller of magical 
proportions." The Herald 
Examiner: "A kaleidoscope of 
wonderfully illogical hues." It 
won a Dramalogue Award; 
Richard Scaffidi called it, "A 
triumph. Nothing short of 

I'm not sure what the extent of your interest in this play 
may be. In terms of research, it definitely leans toward the 
Cohen research as opposed to Ms. Leach's new 
interpretations. It is certainly not a dark consideration, as 
was the Hampton play several years ago. If anything, it 
conveys the joy and humor of the man and brings to light 
the entirely different experience of Carroll's work when it 
is read and performed aloud. 

Also, perhaps, there may be some passionate Carroll lovers, 
who might like to get involved with the NY production. If 
so, I'd love to hear from them. 

In the Spirit of Mr. Dodgson, 

Dan Bredemann 

[/ saw Dan's show in its Los Angeles incarnation a few 
years back, and recommend it very highly!] 


I am an artist working in the Midwest. For several years I 
have included in my oeicvre a series of paintings and mixed 
media pieces based on the Alice books of Lewis Carroll. It 
all began with my MFA thesis exhibit in the early 80s and 
since then I have had other exhibits. The most recent is at 
the Olson-Larsen Galleries in Iowa. The address is if you are interested in viewing. Just 
click on Mary Kline-Misol. I have also just started a website 
that will eventually include all the Alice work. 

I would not call myself a strict Carroll scholar, although I 
have found the stories a great source of inspiration. My web 
address is 

I am eager to become a member of the Society and will go 
through the proper channels to do so. I have enjoyed 
perusing this website. 


Mary Kline-Misol 

{Ms Kline-Misol 's work is quite stunning and surprising. 
Her images include those of real-life Alice, her sisters, 
and Mr Dodgson as well as characters and scenes from 
the canon. A detail of one of her drawings appears on 
this issue 's cover, and another is below. It 's wonderful to 
see imagery incorporating real people while also 
retaining the whimsical spirit of the books and not 
parroting Tenniel. Superb!] 

Editor's Corner 

At the Second International Lewis Carroll 
Conference in June of 1994, I was surprised 
and deeply honored to be asked to take over 
editorial responsibilities for the Knight Letter, 
and have humbly endeavored to do my best 
through the years, not shying away from 
controversy, all the while doing my best to avoid 
the "Bumand antimetabole".' 
You hold in your hands my eighteenth issue. 
Each time, it is a daunting yet highly rewarding 
task, and it has now come time for me to request 
some assistance. My first child, a son, "Hare 
Apparent to the White Rabbit", as yet unnamed, 
is due to arrive in August, and those who have 
gone down this road before tell me it may take 
up just a bit of my time and attention. 
Ideally, I would love to continue as Editor-in- 
Chief. The LCS (U.K.) has an entire Editorial 
Board responsible for their publications, and 
so I am now asking if there is interest out there 
in helping me with specific, definable tasks, 
such as: 

• research and/or fact-checking 

• soliciting origmal articles 

• assembling "From Our Far-Flung 

• heading the book review ("Of Books and 
Things") or "CarroUian Notes" section 

• design and layout 

• proofreading 

• reporting on meetings 

• production (printing, mailing) 

...and so on. 
I must gently ask now if any of you in our 
wonderful readership out there could become 
more involved with its production - giving as 
much or as little time as you have to the cause, 
and getting loads of credit and gratitude. In this 
day and age, geography is no limitation; it can 
all be done in cyberspace. Please eMail me: 
Many thanks, 

1 . Francis Burnand ( 1 836- 1 9 1 7) was the first editor of 
Punch to be knighted. I was not eager to become the 
first editor of the Knight Letter to be punched. 




Elizabeth Sewell (1920 - January 12) - academician, 
social activist, novelist, poet and a founding member of 
the LCSNA, died of cancer at the age of 81 in 
Greensboro NC. Best known for her studies of the 
imagination m science and literature, she was awarded 
the "Poetry, Fiction and Non-fiction" award from the 
American Academy / Institute of Arts and Letters in 

Born in India to English parents, Sewell earned 
Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degrees in Modem 
Languages from Cambridge University. She arrived in 
the United States in 1949, becoming an American citizen 
in 1973. 

Sewell, who was a visiting writer or professor at schools 
including Vassar and Notre Dame, came to Greensboro 
(NC) in 1960 as a visiting professor at Bennett College, 
and in 1974 became a humanities professor at the 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 
Sewell's published work includes three volumes of 
poetry, four novels, dozens of short stories and five 
volumes of criticism, including her seminal and 
influential book-length study of Carroll and Lear, The 
Field of Nonsense (Chatto and Windus, 1952). 
"Sad news. Her book. . .made her known because so little 
attention was then paid to Carroll in the academic world." 
~ Peter Heath 

"After a Society meeting m Winston-Salem in 1989 
where she gave a delightfiil talk, I was privileged to ride 
with her back to Greensboro. I found her approachable, 
charming, and possessed of boundless intellectual 
curiosity." ~ Mark Burstein 

"I was sorry to read of (her) death in the Times. She had 
ideas and opinions and expressed them in a crisp British 
accent. Her book on nonsense is something of a primer, 
and while a good deal has been written on the subject 
since she published it, it has not been made redundant." 
~ Morton Cohen 

"The wide range of people present at her ftmeral and the 
depth of emotion they expressed were a visible 
manifestation of the personal intensity she brought to 
all her relationships. The people she knew through her 
church, the university, and her pursuit of social justice 
all felt genuinely connected to her." 
~ Stephanie Lovett 

Bill Poole (1923 - March 14), Fine Printer 

"Printing in Canada has lost an icon of the private press 
when Bill Poole died suddenly at his home on the Niagara 
Escarpment in Grimsby, Ontario, Canada. We will 
remember Bill as the printer of the Cheshire Cat Press 

editions oi Alice and a speaker at two of the conferences 
held in Canada. 

Bill was the proprietor of the Poole Hall Press. His 
enthusiasm for letterpress and fine printing was 
infectious and I caught the bug willingly. Bill was always 
ready to get his hands black with type metal and encour- 
aged others to ^^ggn^gj^g^^gg^ ^^ ^^ same. 

Bill loved the 
is Carroll and 
to me once 
ified with the 
(he used to 
but not a hoo- 

works of Lew- 
he remarked 
that he ident- 
smoke a pipe, 

Bill loved to /T' ^MHT " I. # work on his 
old clam shell \ A Ifti Chandler and 

Price platen » -' • ^» press; it was 

his easel and he painted broad sfrokes with its iron jaws. 
Each revolution of its flywheel foreshadowed books and 
broadsides that might fill a library. He was never 
intimidated by old hand presses; sometimes, when I'd 
watch him set a line from his job case, I thought for a 
moment he might flip his composing stick into the air 
like a drummer in a marching band, because he set lead 
type by hand with such confidence and without a pause. 

Bill used his type cases as a painter uses paint, mixing 
and matching and carefiilly combining complimentary 
fonts to express his ideas with those writers and artists 
he most admired. He did not wreak havoc with the rules 
of typography, he merely loved to play with the 
boundaries. Bill's hand bound and lovingly printed books 
will be cherished by those of us who had the pleasure to 
know him and collected by those who appreciated Bill's 
unique and playful style. 

He will be sadly missed; his departure leaves an empty 

~ George Walker 

Bill taught at the Ontario College of Art and Design for 
over 25 years and was always an encouraging and 
engaging teacher. One of his favourite courses to teach 
was "Design for the Handicapped" and to pay homage 
to his memory an award has been created that honours a 
student working toward fashioning better designs for 
people with physical challenges. Send your contribution 
to: Bill Poole Scholarship c/o Karen Hendry, Ontario 
College of Art and Design, 100 McCaul Sfreet, Toronto, 
Ontario M5T 1 Wl, Canada. 

woodcut by George Walker 


Ravings from the Writing Desk 

of Stephanie Lovett 

The LCSNA has been working to fulfill the 
missions of its two special memorial funds and we have 
some news on both fronts. These funds, one set up in 
memory of our founding president Stan Marx and the other 
of our founding secretary Maxine Schaefer, provide us with 
wonderful opportunities to expand our work on, and 
promotion of, Lewis Carroll beyond our meetings and our 
publications. The Maxine Schaefer Memorial Children's 
Outreach Fund had another fine event this past weekend in 
conjunction with the spring meeting. Patt Griffm and Paul 
Hamilton once again brought Alice amd Humpty Dumpty to 
life for two classes of third-graders, and we then gave away 
copies of TLG to all of the children. Special thanks go to 
Janet Jurist for all her legwork. As announced in the past, 
Mary Ann Harasymowicz and Monica Edinger are heading 
up another initiative to meet this fund's mission of reaching 
young people, the creation of a curriculum packet for 
teachers to use in the classroom. They report that they are 
now working with our British counterparts on developing a 
"jackdaw", the suitably Carrollian term for a flexible packet 
of source materials, information, and plans for teachers. 

The mission of the Stan Marx Memorial Fund has 
been to keep alive the kind of work Stan did: seeking out 
and incubating a variety of projects that need a little 
encouragement, a little money, and a little exposure in order 
to develop into something worthwhile. It has been difficult 
without the energy of Stan himself for the fimd to replicate 
his benignly Machiavellian doings, and so far the fund has 
mainly been used to bring extraordinary speakers to our 
meetings. However, the LCSNA is launching a new effort 
under the Fund's aegis to raise interest in Carroll among 
college students: an annual essay contest. Fran Abeles and 
August Imholtz are heading up this initiative, which is still 
being developed. It is envisioned that it will begin with 
undergraduates and perhaps alternate between them and high- 
school students. The contest will offer a cash prize and the 
possibility of publication. Who knows what budding scholar 
might be nudged in our direction because of this? More news 
to follow as this contest comes into being. 

Lastly, advance news of the Fall 2001 meeting! 
This year is the 50* anniversciry of the Disney Alice, and the 
LCSNA will be studying this influential set of images and 
ideas by means of a symposium dedicated to examining this 
phenomenon. At this point, plans could still change, but mark 
your calendars for October 27 and reschedule anything that 
might keep you from coming to Los Angeles! Details are 
still being firmed up for a meeting at the Disney Studios, 
where they will screen the movie for us and where we will 
hear from Disney Alice expert Brian Sibley and the 
entertaining and knowledgeable Dan Singer, among other 
activities, speakers, etc. 

Don't forget to check often our Society's website,, expertly maintained by Joel 
Birenbaum, for the most current news between Knight 


'"I took a course in Russian and I got sidetracked 
on a course on Vladimir Nabokov,' recalled 
Katherine Reese Peebles, a junior who interviewed 
the new professor for the school paper in 1943 and 
who was as well-placed as anyone to testify: 'He 
did like young girls. Just not little girls.' That Fall, 
the two began taking long walks across campus 
together, hand in hand, exchanging kisses... 
Nabokov quickly discovered that his student knew 
Alice in Wonderland cold; the two began reciting 
passages to each other as they traipsed around 
campus, 'stumbling and bumbling' through the 
winter dark, traveling the longest possible distance 
between cups of coffee, at the student union and in 

from Stacy Schiff's biography 
Vera (Mrs Vladimir Nabokov) 

An excerpt from Laura Miller's interview with 
Norton Juster, author of the children's classic The 
Phantom Tollbooth (Random House, 1961): 

lm: Speaking of children's fantasy, it seems that 
the question of how to get the characters from 
normal life into a fantastic environment is a 
particular challenge. Writers have had their 
characters fall dovm rabbit holes, walk through 
wardrobes and be carried off in tornadoes. Where 
did the tollbooth come from? It's such a lovely 
blend of the magical and the mundane. 
nj: It was exactly what you say: I was looking for a 
rabbit hole sort of thing, but I wanted it to be in 
contemporary terms. I was thinking about what was 
a common experience for children that was a 
fransition point where something changes. It 
seemed to me that ahnost every kid has been in a 
car going through a tollbooth. 
lm: Not in California. That baffled me as a child. 
nj: You didn't have toUbooths? 
lm: No, it was all freeways. Although that wasn't 
any more baffling than the freacle well in Alice in 
Wonderland. I spent a lot of time wondering what 
treacle was. 

'"We are not of Alice, nor of thee, nor are we 
children at all.. .We are nothing; less than nothing, 
and dreams.'" 

Charles Lamb 

"Dream Children: A Reverie" in 

The Essays of Elia (1823) 


(©a" '^(§m^^ 3c 


Certainly the biggest news thus far this year in the 
Carrollian realms is the extravagant sale called "Lewis 
Carroll's Alice: The Photographs, Books, Papers and 
Personal Effects of Alice Liddell and Her Family" to take 
place on Wednesday, June 6* at Sotheby's in London. By all 
means, get the catalogue as soon as you can (the telephone 
numbers for ordering are on the enclosed flyer) - and be 
prepared to mortgage your children. After getting the 
catalogue, you can bid "absentee" by phone and fax. The 
catalogue itself is £33 and certamly worth poring over. 

Previews of some of the 
bounty were held in New York (20-25 
April), Chicago (30 April- 1 May), and 
Los Angeles (7-9 May) before being 
exhibited in London. 

From an estimated price of 
£150 for a group of puzzles to the 
£800,000 for her photographic 
scrapbook which includes 48 images 
by Dodgson, the wonders never stop. 
Alice Pleasance Liddell Hargreaves, 
her only surviving son Caryl, and other 
members of her family had deposited 
their archives in Christ Church, 
Oxford, over many years. It was 
recently decided by Caryl's daughter 
Mary Jean St. Clair to sell off their 
holdings and to divide the proceeds 
among her offspring. 

There is an unimaginable wealth of items: a letter 
written by APL at the age of 6; her wedding ring, fans and 
opera glasses; letters to and from CLD including some to 
Lorina (her mother), the white vellum copy of Alice's Ad- 
ventures Under Ground (in facsimile) presented to her by 
Carroll and bearing the inscription "to Her whose namesake 
one happy summer day inspired his story"; watercolour 
albums; and presentation or inscribed copies of myriad 
editions of The Books. Some lots are a trifle odd - a 1951 
Disney picture book with her signature cut out of a check 
and pasted in or a collection of her financial papers - but 
those are mere quibbles. The sale (158 lots including the 
pair of George IV mahogany bookcases which housed the 
collection) is expected to net at least £2,000,000. 

One myth which may be put to rest here is of Mrs. 
Hargeaves' ignormg of her past for all the years between 
1870 and 1932. The copies inscribed (mostly to her son 
Caryl) show her consistent interest over the decades in 
acquiring differing editions, languages, and merchandise. 
For example, a book presented to her son Alan Knyveton 

Hargreaves (1881-1915) in 1889 
bears the inscription "Alan. . .from his 
mother, 'Alice in Wonderland'". 
A Year in Provenance 

The 34"" Annual California 
International Antiquarian Book Fair in 
San Francisco on February 23-25 had many treasures for 
Carrollian seekers, as did the 4P' Annual New York 
Antiquarian Book Fair which happened to be on the same 
weekend on which we were meeting. A particularly fine 
selection was from Estates of Mind in Great Neck, N.Y. 
Two Royal Presentation copies 
Alice 's Adventures under Ground 
in a custom binding, inscribed to 
H.R.H. the Duchess of Albany and 
a Nursery Alice to H.R.H. the 
Princess Alice were available for 
$20,000 and $10,000 respectively. 
The former is Princess Helen[a 
Frederica of Waldeck & Pyrmont 
(1861-J922)], who married Queen 
Victoria's son Leopold [George 
Duncan, Duke of Albany (1853 - 
1884)] in 1882. Their daughter 
Princess Alice {Mary Victoria 
Augusta Pauline (1883-1980), 
later Countess of Athlone], was 
the subject of the latter inscription. 
She should not be confused with 
her aunt. Princess Alice [Maud 
Mary (1843-1878), later Grand Duchess of Hesse]. 

Estates of Mind also carried a pencil ms. in a young 
CLD's hand with anagrams on the names of [barrister and 
writer] Edward Vaughan Kenealy, William Everett Gladstone, 
and others. 516.487-5160 and -2476 fax. 
Who ya gonna call? 

"For those who enjoy literary works which utilize 
elements of Alice, I recommend Dick King-Smith's The 
Roundhill. Published last year (Crown, 2000; 0517800470; 
ages 9-12), I had read of it in children's literature circles, 
but can't recall any mention of it in Carroll circles. At any 
rate, I liked this book a lot. It is episodic and probably will 
not appeal to many children as the plot consists mostly of a 
rather depressed 14 year-old boy (who is questioning his 
belief in God) meeting up with what turns out to be the ghost 
of Alice Hargreaves nee Liddell. 

King-Smith is more familiar to me as the author 
of amusing animal fantasy for younger children such as 
Babe, which was made into a very successftil movie a few 
years ago." ~ Monica Edinger 

Alice and her granddaughter Mary Jean (1 932) 


Vuja dd? 

Mention in KL 65 of Tennyson 's Gift by Lynn Truss, 
which gave a fictional account of encounters with Tennyson, 
J.M.Cameron and CLD, reminded a reader of the novel 
Neighboring Lives by Thomas M. Disch and Charles Naylor 
[Scribner's, 1981, repr. Johns Hopkins, 1991] - also a sort 
of "portrait gallery", though this time of Chelsea (rather 
than Wight) from 1 834 to 1 867 - wherein are found Thomas 
Carlyle, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and CLD among others. 
The Nixon Years 

The Ame Nixon Center for the Study of Children's 
Literature opened for business on April 30. Located in the 
Henry Madden Library on the campus of California Statue 
University, Fresno, it is now "one of the West Coast's largest 
and most significant research centers. Its growing collection 
includes more than 25,000 children's books, original art 
works, letters, and other realia." They are fortunate to have 
selected as curator Angelica Carpenter, active LCSNA 
member and author of three biographies written for children 
(on Frances Hodgson Burnett, L. Frank Baum, and R. L. 
Stevenson). Ms. Carpenter's Carroll bio for children is also 
in the works. 

Two other children's literature research centers are 
the Kerland collection at the University of Minnesota and 
the de Grummond collection at the University of 

Contact: Angelica Carpenter, California State 
University, Fresno, Henry Madden Library, The Ame Nixon 
Center, 5200 North Barton Ave. M/S ML34, Fresno CA 
93740; 559.278.8116; -6952 fax. Angelica@csu.fresno. 
Incontinent Hysteria 

The poor deluded Continental Historical Society 
is still among us, according to an article in the Mill Valley 
(CA) Herald, 13-19 March '01. You remember them: 
convinced by manhandled statistics and too much free time, 
they have decided that Queen Victoria was the real author 
of the Alice books. 

Once upon a time there was a hilarious drug- 
besotted parody of overwrought research called Oedipus 
in Disneyland, written by "Hercules Malloy" which posited 
that the Alice books were the secret sex diaries of 
H. R.H.Victoria. Morphed now into the Continental 
Historical Society and having completely lost their sense 
of humor, they persist, even though their premise is absurd 
and the credibility of their methods had been thoroughly 
destroyed in the article "As Pigs Have to Fly or. Who Really 
Wrote the Alice Books" in Jabberwocky Issue 57 - Winter 
1983/84 (Vol.13, No.l/ 

If you really must, their website is www.conhissoc. 
com and their four books are available there. Hjckrrh! 

Sims like a great idea! 

Ralph Sims, a collector from the Seattle area and a 
most welcome new member, brought along a spectacular 
copy of the "Micawber /i//ce" to Janet's cocktail party, where 
it was drooled over (thankfiiUy, not literally) by several of 
us. The production was first-rate, as were the iimovative 
ilustrations by Griff Jones (see below). With great kind- 
ness, Ralph has taken it upon himself to interest the pub- 
lishers in a special subscription LCSNA edition, and they 
are most enthusiastic. 

Carol Grossman of Four Rivers Books has dis- 
cussed the special printing with Bob Dean, the publisher, 
who suggested: 

• A special colophon for the LCSNA, stating that 
these copies were prmted just for the Society, and 
also including the name of the subscriber. The colo- 
phon will be signed by Bob and the artist Griff 
Jones, along the lines of "This copy is one of {#} 
and is presented to {insert name here}." 

• The binding will be quarter leather with linen cov- 
ered boards. 

The books will be in custom-made clamshell boxes. 
A frill set of signed prints, including the one not in 
the book, will be included with each copy. 
Because of the setup requirements at the bindery, 
minimum order quantity is ten copies. 
A $200 deposit for each book will be needed to 
help cover the materials costs. 
The price will be $549 per copy. 
Delivery will be by year end 2001. 

If you are interested, please contact: 

Ralph Sims 

3200 Cascadia Ave. South 

Seattle, WA 98144-7000 

+ 1.206.721.8378 

+1.206.374.2990 (Int'I/Local FAX) 

888.866.4851 (U.S. FAX) 

On the following two pages is another song from the forthcoming 
opera by Gary Bachlund and Marilyn Barnes 


Lewis Carroll 

The Mock Turtle^s Lament 

Gary Bachlund 

with mournful praise 






ti - ful 
ti - ful 
























wait - ing 
Game? Or 




tu - 


Who for such 

Who would not 



9: g: 


'n f r 


n *r J F 












dain - ties 
give all 




Soup of the 

pen - ny - worth 

eV - ning, 
on - ly 












Mr P r I f- 



beau - ti - ful 
beau - ti - fill 



of the 
of the 




ti - fill 
ti - ful 

t^^^ * 






Copyright © 1996 by Yelton Rhodes Music All international rights reserved. 
Unauthorized copying of this music in any manner violates the Federal Copyright Law 







Beau - ti - fill soup! 

Beau - ti - M soup! 

Beau - ti - fill soup! 

Beau - ti - ftil soup! 










// ten. apiacere 


f — rr 




of the 
of the 





ti - fill 
ti - fill 







Co/ CflW/O 


















Twiddle Dumb, Indeed 

"A Firm Foundation", a radio ministry based in New Jersey, 
has a site wherein biographies of various personages are 
mangled in an attempt to demonstrate their adherence to 
flindamentaUst Christianity. Some excerpts from CLD's page 
LewisCarroll/lewiscarroll.html) follow. 
"... Lewis Carroll by some was seemed ahnost an odd type 
of person. He was as crazy at times as the Mad Hatter, as 
dreamy as the Door Mouse, as flustered as the White Rabbit, 
as droll as Twiddle Dee and Twiddle Dumb... In 1861 he 
took orders for ordination, but in spite of his learning, his 
shyness excentuated by a tendency to stammer, prevented 
him from seeking the ministry as his profession. ... Alice 
in Wonderland and the sequel. Through the Looking Glass, 
were written in the first place solely to amuse a young friend. 
Her name was Alice Fleital, daughter of the Dean ... 'Most 
of Mr. Dodson's story', she says, 'were told to us on river 
expeditions near Oxford. My eldest sister, her name was 
Prima, I was called Secunda, and Tersha was my sister Edith. 
I believe the beginning of Alice was told one summer 
afternoon when the sun was so burning that we had landed in 
the meadows down the river. Deserting the boat and taking 
refiige in the only bit of shade to be found, which was under 
a new made haystack here from all 3 came the old petition, 
"tell us a story.'" . . . Carroll had his manuscript volume bound 
and he presented it to Alice Fleital as a surprise for 
Christmas in 1964... 

No doubt his obsession with logic and mathematics and 
geometry had something to do with his punctiliousness, but 
he also found other ways in which to plague the life of his 
long-suffering publishers... 

And if an earlier friend grew up, there were always younger 
ones coming into a circle. One of these was Frevol 
McDonald, son of George McDonald . . . Nor did his post 
as a mathematical lecturer prevent him from indulging in 
fiirther literary experiments for it was during this people 
that he published two volumes of Comic Verse and Parities, 
Vantase McGoria and The Hunting of the Shark." 

Things that begin with a T 

Cardew Design is a U.K. company that makes unique 
"collectible" teapots, and they have made 2001 AW-themQd. 
An entire line of Alice teapots and tableware is available 
from their catalog or online. There is a "collectors' club", 
whose "member teapot" for this year (free with annual 
membership) is "King of Arts" which depicts founder Paul 
Cardew as the King of Hearts card painting the roses red, 
dressed in his ever-present running shoes. This piece can 
be seen on 

Paul will also be in the U.S. in April and June for the Inter- 
national Collectors Exposition, and has invited everyone 
to attend a Mad Hatters Tea Party in Anaheim, CA (April 
28*^, 29*), at The Teapottery in Flemington, NJ, on June 
24*^ , and in Rosemont, IL (June 30* & July 1). The White 
Rabbit teapot will be available for collectors attending. 
If you're in England, visit their factory, where the 
"Madhatter's Tea Room offers five different sorts of 
delicious cream tea inside man AfV stage setting." 
To reach the Cardew Collectors Club or for individual sales, 
write to PO Box 3989, Orange, CA 92857; CardewClub@; 877.9TEAPOT (877.983.2768). 

Where There's a Will 

George Will makes a habit of getting things Carrollian all 
wrong. Four years ago (KL 57 p.23) he got the Queen of 
Hearts and the Red Queen mixed up; in his "Exposing the 
'Myth of Racial Profiling'" piece on 19 April, he credited 
the coining of the axiom "what is said three times must be 
true" to Eugene McCarthy. 

Depending of what the definition of "is" is 

"A children's book that you're forbidden to read aloud to 
your kids? What is this, Alice in Wonderland? Well, 
actually, it is." So begins an article by Roger Parlofif on ("Intelligence for the Internet Economy") 
which goes on to describe a list of "permissions" that 
appeared on the title page of the Adobe Glassbooks e-book 
version of y^fT when it first became available. In order to 
use the book one had to agree to a list which included the 
followmg: "No text selections can be copied from this book 
to the clipboard. No printing is permitted on this book. 
This book cannot be lent or given to someone else. This 
book cannot be given to someone else. This book cannot 
be read aloud." 

For a work in public domain, that gave pause to many people 
including Stanford law professor Lawrence Lessig, who 
wrote extensively on the topic. 

Adobe spokesmjm Len Kawell later explained that by "read 
aloud" they meant "Read Aloud", a brand name for a text- 
to-speech feature, by "lend" they meant a special DRM 
(Digital Rights Management) technology by which the 
initial purchasers can temporarily "lend" their copies to 
someone (and forgo their rights to read it while in the 
other's "possession") by infrared beaming or transmission 
over a LAN, and by "given" they meant, again, that the 
purchasers could similarly assign their rights to another 

Lessig's article includes such verbal finery as "Those who 
read the 'permissions' and believed that by 'permissions' 
Adobe actually meant permissions - they were simply 

Adobe finally corrected the text to allow purchasers to 
"copy 10 text selections every 10 days ... [and] ... to print 
10 pages every 10 days" although why those resfrictions 
had any validity to a work in public domain remains for the 
lawyers to haggle over. Curiouser and curiouser, indeed. 


Ft^OfH Oaf^ ra^-^fa^^ 


A warm Carrollian welcome to our 
newest sister society: Lewis Carroll 
Netherlands; Eddi Lint, chairman: 
Grissomstraat 1, 5081 TL Hilvaren- 
beek, Netherlands. 

The L.C.S. Canada met on April 28* in 
Toronto. The program included "Won- 
derland Cards and Looking-Glass 
Chess: a Reappraisal of the Game 
Motifs in the Alice Books" by Dr. Glen 
Downey; "Parody and Influence: Lewis 
Carroll's Mischmasch" by Chris 
Pezzarello; and " 1 9'''-century adver- 
tising Trade Cards" by Bcirbara Rusch 
and Donny Zaldin. Their June 2"'' 
program will include "LC: Through the 
Window", a history of the stained-glass 
windows at All Saints, Daresbury in a 
slide presentation by John Ratcliffe of 
Daresbury; "The Wonderland Tarot 
Deck" by Pam Hancock; "A look at 
various artists' interpretations of the 
card characters in AfF" by Dayna 
McCausland; and a few hands of "Court 



Alice to the Lighthouse : Children's 
Books and Radical Experiments in 
Art by Juliet Dusinberre (Macmillan, 
1999, 0333658507, $50 pb) "is the 
first and only full-length study of the 
relation between children's literature 
and writing for adults. Lewis Carroll's 
Alice books created a revolution in 
writing for and about children which 
had repercussions not only for 
subsequent children's writers - 
Stevenson, Kipling, Nesbit, Frances 
Hodgson Burnett and Mark Twain - but 
for Virginia Woolf and her generation. 
Virginia Woolf's celebration of writing 
as play rather than preaching is the twin 
of the Post-Impressionist art champ- 
ioned by Roger Fry. Dusinberre 
connects books for children in the late 
nineteenth century with developments 
in education and psychology, all of 
which feed into the modernism of the 
early twentieth century." 

Poetry for Young People: Lewis 
Carroll, ed. Mendelson (Sterling, 
2001), illustrated by Eric Copeland 
watercolors. $15, 0-8069-5541-4. 
In Elementary Number Theory in 
Nine Chapters (Cambridge University 
Press, 1999) by James J. Tattersall, the 
author cites Dodgson twice: first, in 
connection with cryptology, his 
rediscovery of the Vigen^re cipher, i.e. 
Dodgson's "'Alphabet cipher". The 
second has to do with representations, 
/. e. Dodgson's problem to prove that if 
n can be written as the sum of two 
squares, then 2n can also be written that 

Barbara Jaye Wilson's Murder and the 
Mad Hatter : a Brenda Midnight 
Mystery (0380803577, Avon Books, 

Conned Again, Watson! Cautionary 
Tales of Logic, Math and Probability 
by Colin Bruce, Perseus Publishing 
2001 (0738203459) The fifth chapter 
is titled "The Case of the Unmarked 
Graves". "An unimaginative little mys- 
tery (really a math problem imper- 
sonating a mystery) featuring Dr. 
Watson and Dodgson." - Dayna 
Carroll's photography is briefly 
discussed in Clementina, Lady 
Hawarden: Studies from Life, 1857- 
1864 (Aperture and V&A Publications, 

An article in The Times (London), 
February 24, 200 1 , "Sanity through the 
looking glass", ostensibly reviewing 
Penguin's new inexpensive >4fr($^ TLG 
quotes postmodern writer Kate 
Atkinson at great length, and says that 
"while her novels Behind the Scenes 
at the Museum and Human Croquet 
(the title borrowed from the 'hedgehog 
croquet' that Alice is forced to play) 
have strong veins of Carroll-esque 
humour running through them, it is 
Atkinson's third novel, Emotionally 

Weird vi\nc\i shows the clearest debt to 
Carroll with its sensible heroine adrift 
in a world of eccentrics, a world where 
magic is not out of the question." 
The White Rabbit: The Secret Agent 
the Gestapo Could Not Crack by 
Bruce Marshall (a new paperback 
reprint from Cassell Academic, 
0304356972). See also Between Silk 
iSc Cyanide, KL 61 p.23. 

Proofs and Confirmations: The Story 
of the Alternating Sign Matrix 
Conjecture by David Bressoud 
(Mathematical Association of America 
/ Cambridge University Press, 1999, 
$75 cloth 0521661706, $30 paper 
0521666465), a "detective story" and 
philosophical speculation on the nature 
of proof, discusses Dodgson's 
prominent role in the formulation of 
the conjecture (an extension of his 
method for evaluating determinants). 
{Also see Fran Abeles ' article in KL 


"Indestructible Alice" by Aime Bemays 
and Justin Kaplan, The American 
Scholar, Spring 2000. The distin- 
guished literary couple discusses 
Alice's perennial appeal. 
"The Baker's tale: Family sources for 
The Hunting of the Snark'\ a 
fascinating article by Pauline Hunter 
Blair in the (London^ Times Literary 
Supplement, 2 March '01, posits that 
logs from the 1773 Arctic expedition 
undertaken by Conmiodore Skeffington 
Lutwidge (namesake uncle of CLD's 
"beloved Uncle Skeffington") 
influenced both the Snark and "The 
Walrus and the Carpenter". 
"Baby's Booty" in Newsweek, Dec 4 
'00, reveals that rapper "LL Cool J" 
Smith hired scenic painter Chris 
Cumberbach to paint his children's 
rooms in ^W^ motifs. 
"What Day of the Week Is It?" by 
Edward L. Cohen in Cubo 2 (2000) 
pays particular attention to CLD's work 
on the problem. 


"The Magic of Madame Alexander 
Dolls" in Smithsonian v.31 #12, 
March '01, reports ". . .her first success 
was an /I PF doll." This was in the 1930s. 
"LC: Through the Writing Pen" by 
Stuart Lutz, in Autograph Collector, 
June '01, discusses CLD's differing 
signatures and the comparitive values 
of his books and ALsS. Bookstores or 
''AW: A Classic For Kids & Collectors" 
by Roy Nuhn in Country Collectibles, 
Spring 2001. 

"Lewis Carroll's Live Flowers" by 
Muriel Smith in Notes & Queries, Sep. 

2000, Vol. 47 Issue 3, is a follow up to 
an earlier article (1984) tracing the 
literary source of the talking flowers 
of TTLG to Tennyson. 

"What is a Boojum? Nonsense and 
modernism" by Michael Holquist in 
Yale French Studies, Issue 96, 1999, 
compares classical and modern 
literature and traces much of it back to 
the Snark. It is a reprise issue; the work 
was first printed in Issue 43 in 1969. 
"All Mimsy Were the Borogoves" in 
the School Library Journal, January 

2001, bemoans the loss of MLS 
(Master's of Libreuy Science) degrees 
in favor of MIMS (Master's in 
Information Science), which is 
pronounced as it is spelled, and inspired 
the writer to quote "Jabberwocky". 

A positive review of wordplay's 
Alice's Adventures under Ground (KL 
64, p. 17) in Mythprint: The Monthly 
Bulletin of the Mythopoeic Society, 
Vol. 38 #2, Feb. '01. This "fine (and 
fun) addition to anyone's collection of 
CarroUiana", as reviewer Arden Smith 
called it, is now available at a discount 
through the enclosed flyer. 
"Jabberwocky - Do You Mean What I 
Mean by Diversity?" by our own Steph- 
anie Lovett in Profiles in Diversity 
Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Winter 2001. 

Our website, fabulously maintained by 
Joel Birenbaum, gets Jin average of sev- 
enteen thousand hits a month! 
New member Lauren Harman has a de- 
lightfiil website dedicated to the Alice 
books, especially the many illustrated 
versions at http://staging.tomsnyder. 


Angelica Carpenter's husband Richard 
has an interactive Doublets website at 

Online multimedia greeting cards at 
The Lewis Carroll eGroup has moved 

The International League of Antiqu- 
arian Booksellers can now do on-line 
searchmg and ordering for antiquarian 
The Mad Hatter's Teashop deals in 
Carrollian memorabilia: www.madhat 
Marsha Adams' extensive collection of 
White Rabbit paraphernalia is viewable 
at http://albums.photopoint.eom/j/ 
Albumlndex?u=327453&a=65 1 3679. 
A great site for finding foreign 
Information about the 1966 Hanna- 
Barbera AW or What 's a Nice Kid Like 
You Doing in a Place Like This? (Bill 
Dana, Sammy Davis Jr., Zha Zha Gabor, 
etc.), along with song downloads, from 
the "ToonTracker" at 

The 1996 "Nail Alice" can be viewed 
"Casebook: Jack the Ripper" has an 
article by Karoline Leach {In the 
Shadow of the Dreamchild) on 
Richard Wallace's claim that Dodgson 
was Jack the Ripper. "There is no 
evidence at all - anywhere - to support 
Wallace's claim." 
Australian illustrator Gavin O'Keefe's 
website - his ^fF (Carroll Foundation, 
Melbourne, 1 990) and Snark (privately 
published. North Fitzroy, 1995) are 
enchanting - has moved to http:// 
Online Essays 

Anna Marf Aguilar, a student of English 
and Catalonian Philology at the Univer- 
sity of Valencia, has a "portal" Carroll 
site at http://mural.uv. es/anma/. Much 
of it is "borrowed" from other sites. 

Marc Ortlieb's essay on Sylvie and 
CapeCanaveral/7 1 06/sylvie.htm. 
A comparison of lexemes and 
morphemes in "But There are no Such 
Things as Words!" by "The Phantom 
Linguist" uses "Jabberwocky" as its 
prime analysand. www.yourdict- .html. 
"The Metaphysics of Wonderland: 
Lewis Carroll's Real Religion as 
Anticipation of William James" by 
Richard Allison http://pigseye. 
"Alice in Mathland: A Mathematical 
Fantasy", a mathematics and creative 
writing thesis by Sara Smollett of 
Simon's Rock College (Great 
Barrington, MA): http://minerva. "Thesis). 

Angelica Carpenter spoke on "Literary 
Gardens" (including the Oxford garden 
where CLD met APL) to the Tulare City 
(CA) Historical Society on March 18. 
"Adventure with AW & TLG" was the 
subject of a five-week course taught by 
Judith Granger (27 March onwards) at 
the "92"'' St. Y" in New York. 
Two by Dr. Francine F. Abeles: "Lewis 
Carroll's 'Game'of Voting", April 21 
in Las Vegas NV at the Western 
Regional meeting of the American 
Mathematical Society held at the 
University of Nevada; and "Warren 
Weaver on the C.L. Dodgson Nachlafi", 
April 28 in Hoboken NJ at the Eastern 
Regional meeting of the American 
Mathematical Society held at the 
Stevens Institute of Technology. 

Bj6m Sundmark's dissertation Alice in 
the Oral-Literary Continuum can be 
ordered from Lund University Press, 
Box 141, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden, or 
directly from Bj6rn Sundmark, 
LinerovSgen 18 B, 224 75 Lund, 
Sweden. An abstract can be found at 

The Guy Leclercq translation of AW 
into French {Alice au Pays du 
Merveilleux Ailleurs) has been issued 
as a book (ed. Au Bord des continents, 


illustrations by Jong Romano, 165 FF; 
ISBN 2-9 11 684- 17-6; and a CD-ROM, 
read by Lambert Wilson, which 
includes special effects, games, and 
riddles, published by EMME Interactive 
at 249 FF (€38) and available from You can get the book 
through its distributor, Hachette. 
Handpainted Russian AW "nesting 
dolls" (matroushkas), set of 5 for 
$500 from The Rushin Tailor [sic] at 
product/316. 800-981-5432. 
Liza Lehmann (1862-1918), the first 
president of the Society of Women 
Musicians (U.K.), composed a song 
cycle of Carroll's poems in 1908. A 
CD called "Lehmann: Songs", Volume 
4 of "The English Song Series" 
(Collins 15082), contains selections 
from this work. 

Russian Emigre Tatiana lanovskaia, now 
living in Canada, illusfrated/lfFin 1979 
and TTLG in 1998, and hopes eventually 
to see them published in Moscow. In 
the meantime, she has printed cards and 
posters from the drawings. The price 
for a black and white card is us$l, for 
color us$2.50; for SY2 x 11" poster in 
b/w US$10, color us$37. bianovski; 416.650.1871; 25 Black 
Hawkway, North York ON, M2R 3L5 

On 1 February, the Postal Service 
issued a sheet of 20 different self- 
adhesive 34^ commemorative stamps 
honoring "American Illustrators", 
including A.B. (Arthur Burdett) Frost 
(1851-1928), the original illustrator 
of Rhyme? and Reason? (1884) and 
A Tangled Tale (1885). At your local 
Post Office, or go to www. stamps and enter 560440 in the 
"Product Search" box, making sure the 
"Item number" box underneath is 
checked, and the "Name" box is not. 
Classic black velvet slippers with AW- 
themed embroidery. One shoe features 
the White Queen and the other the 
White Rabbit. Black heel and frim. For 
ladies. $200. http://www.stubbsand Stubbs & Wootton, 323 
Worth Avenue, Palm Beach, FL 33480; 
1-877-4-Stubbs. Or 22 East 72nd St., 
New York, N.Y. 10021; 212.249.5200. 

Alice dolls and keyrings at www. 
Beverly Wallace's "Jabberwock", a 
series of twelve coUographic prints 
have been exhibited at various galleries 
around the Northeast and she was kind 
enough to bring them to the April 
meeting. She can be reached at 176 
Bullet Hole Road, Mahopac NY 
845.628.6462; -1764 fax. 
"Department 56" has a set of 11 AW 
"Distinguished Extinguishers", a.k.a. 
"Candle Crowns", in a numbered 
Limited Edition, with their own book- 
shaped container, for only $4,000. See 
Marie Osmond has a popular line of 
porcelain dolls which she hawks on the 
QVC. It includes an ^fF doll, 17" high, 

Ausfralian cartoonist Paul Rasche is 
illusfrating a series of pictures (U"x 
16", frill color) to accompany "Jabber- 
wocky". The surreal prints can be 
bought individually ($20) or as a set of 
six ($90).;; +0414 744 
249. PO Box 1236 Box Hill Victoria 
3128 Australia. 

The United Airlines m-flight shopping 
magazine featured quite detailed "Alice 
and the Garden Bunny" (actually, the 
White Rabbit) statues. They are, 
respectively, 25'/2" and 18" inches tall. 
Made of concrete. $135 and $99. 1- 
800-SKYMALL or 
Deb Canham Artist Designs dresses up 
miniature mohair bears. HerAWsQi (in 
2 editions for a total of 12 pieces for 
roughly $500-600 per set) can be 
found in stores through her website: 

Disney's famed Elecfrical Parade will 
move into their new California 
Adventure theme park, which opened 
in February '01 right next to 
Disneyland in Anaheim. The parade, 
which features scenes from A W among 
others, will begin its run on July 4. It 
features more than 500,000 light bulbs 
and a cast of more than 1 00 performers. 

Jazz singer Maureen McGovern's 
repertoire includes a "syncopated scat 
of a radical reinterpretation of the 
Disney song 'I'm Late'" 
Most of the following can be ordered 
through or be 
found at Disney stores everywhere: 
"Celebrating Ward Kimball" honors 
one of Disney's original "Nine Old 
Men" in a limited-edition lithograph / 
eel. The eel includes his Cheshire Cat 
character; the background the Mad 
Hatter & March Hare and Bros. 
Tweedle. Edition Size 350, $2500 

A 50th Anniversary Snowglobe 
"recreating the memorable trial scene" 
also plays the theme from the movie. 
Hand-painted resin and glass, 8'/2". 

Six "Fiftieth Anniversary" AW clois- 
onne pins (not to be confiised with the 
45* anniversary set). $6.50 each. 
AW salt & pepper shakers, $23 at www. 

Spotted at DisneyWorld: a green Mad 
Hatter Hat and a purple Tea Cup windup 
($3.50 and $2). 

The Vorpal Blade #10, ed. By Steven 
Steinbock is devoted to "the inter- 
section of mystery and detective fic- 
tion and Carrollian literature. I've 
included artwork, analysis, and reviews 
of works by John Dickson Carr, Ellery 
Queen, Nicholas Blake, Rufris King, 
Fredric Brown, and a 'Shadow' story 
from the pulps." Not aimed at com- 
pleteness (see Sewell's Alice in Mys- 
tery and Detective Fiction, vols. 1-2, 
1983), but nicely done. Send $2 to 10 
Hickory Lane, Yarouth ME 04096. 

yiR^' "children's musical" by BareStage 
Productions at U.C.Berkeley, January 
19-20, 2001. 

Virginia Western Theatre (Roanoke 
VA) presented "Follow That Rabbit: The 
Wonderland Story" weekends of 
January 25 and Feb 2. 
^^ by Steamer No. 10 Theatre (Albany, 
NY): "by utilizing a 2,500-year-old 
theater trick called a periaktoi, or a 
three-sided set piece, Alice dipped into 


and about a Wonderland peopled with 
large foam puppets." Feb. 10-11. 
AW, March 15-17, Fayette (GA)- 
Coweta Family Theatre. 
AW at Theatre at the Mount, Monta- 
chusett (Fitchburg MA), April 6-7. 
The Ballet Theater of Lancaster (PA) 
AW, choreographed by Gay Porter 
Speer, April 7-8. 

The Children's Theatre Company of 
Minneapolis, MN, will perform AW 
from April 26 to June 15, 2002. 
"Alice Under Ground" at Bryn Mawr 
(PA) and Haverford colleges is "a 
walking play, with many of the scenes 
occurring outside". Mid-April. 
Starting April 27*, "Alice" by the Lida 
Project, a Denver (CO) company 
specializing in experimental "digitally 
enhanced theater" explores the world 
of the Web through CLD's relationship 
with APL. 

AW by the Gwinnett Ballet Theatre in 
Snellville GA, May 2. 

The New York City Opera presented its 
"Showcasing American Composers" 
series May 17. It included Manly 
Romero's "Dreaming of Wonderland". 

USA Weekend sponsors "Make a 
Difference Day Awards", which honors 
those who volunteer on that day (this 
year's awards were for October 28th, 
2000). Winners included 30 volunteers 
from 9 service clubs in Vallejo (CA) 
who "raked, painted, pruned and poured 
concrete for a pavilion at Children's 
Wonderland Park, a 39-year-old city- 
owned playground with an AW theme 
that has been closed for 2 years because 
of concerns about the safety of its 
aging equipment. The park is slated for 
a $1.8 million renovation." 

"Finding Wonderland" - a freehand 
"riff" on AW, 2\ Dec '00, on CBC TV 
(Canada), was directed by Dr. Stephen 

"Alice In Libraryland" a program spon- 
sored by The Enoch Pratt Free Library 
(Baltimore, MD) to celebrate Carroll's 
birthday was directed by Ellie 
Luchinsky, head of their Fine Arts 
department and our beloved former 
secretary. The Sun reported "nearly 
eight different editions of the books 
were displayed, and some of the 
participants dressed as characters from 
Carroll's works." ' 
[One must ask: " nearly eight" ??] 
A review of a performance in The 
Guardian (London), February 15, 200 1 
of a concert by the London Sinfonietta 
of works by Hungarian composer 
Gyorgy Ligeti (1923 - ) contains the 
intriguing sentence "if Ligeti ever gets 
around to writing the second opera he 
has contemplated now for more than 
20 years (based on Alice in Wonder- 
land), it might, one suspects, sound a 
bit like this." Ligeti wrote the opera Le 
grand macabre, premiered in Stock- 
hohn in 1978. 

WW..VH itiavtwrt ttrgw saiU 


For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to Fran Abeles, Marsha Adams, Ruth Berman, Gary Brockman, Llisa 
Demetrios Burstein, Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Monica Edinger, Johanna Hurwitz, August Imholtz, 
Clare Imholtz, Stan Isaacs, Janet Jurist, Charlotte Kackley, Stephanie Lovett, Dayna McCausland, Sandra Parker, 
Lucille Posner, Edward Wakeling, Cindy Walter, and Charlotte Watter. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be ad- 
dressed to the Secretary, P.O.Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 
(sustaining). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 
94942 or, preferably, by e-mail, below. 

President: Stephanie Lovett, Secretary: Cindy Watter, 

VP. and Editor: Mark Burstein, 
The Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: